These cheeses are characterized by high humidity (above 73%), which is due to the fact that the technology of their production does not involve long ripening. These cheeses, as a rule, are kept very short. The most famous varieties of young cheeses: brynza, buco, mascarpone, burrata, ricotta, panier, cream cheese, in European countries include various types of cottage cheese.
- Soft cheeses
Soft cheeses have a moisture content of more than 67%. Such cheeses usually ripen outside faster than inside. Therefore, they have an uneven consistency, inside - softer, outside - covered with a crust. Often during the preparation on the surface or inside the body of cheese, spores of mold fungi are sown, which significantly change the organoleptic properties of the product. The most common varieties of soft cheeses are feta, brie, camembert, gorgonzola.
- Sour-milk cheeses
This type of cheese consists of water at 60-73%. By the name it is clear that sour-milk cheeses are obtained from yogurt obtained by adding acids and heating to the milk. Cheese ripens no more than two weeks. Sour-milk cheeses are very low in fat content (about 10%), which allows them to be considered dietary. They like to add seasonings (caraway seeds), as well as spores of fungi of mold. The technology of producing sour-milk cheeses is specific for the region of Germany and Austria, so in our country these cheeses are little known.
- Semi-hard slice cheese
These cheeses, which are distinguished by a wide variation of tastes, are also characterized by a moisture content of 61-69%. The maturation of such cheeses is from 3 weeks to 9 months. This group includes, in particular, soft cream cheese, esrom, bonbel, havarti, roquefort and other moldy cheeses. The fat content of semi-hard slices varies between 30-50%.
- Sliced cheeses This group includes the most popular and inexpensive brands of cheeses with a relatively short maturity (usually within 4-6 weeks) and a moisture content of 54 to 63%. Thanks to such humidity, it is especially convenient to cut and use them in cooking. The most famous grades of chunky cheeses are edamer, gouda, tilsiter, maasdam.
- Hard cheeses
These cheeses have the lowest moisture content (up to 56%) and really high hardness. These properties are determined by the technology: the maturation period is from 3 months to 3 years. But hard cheeses have strong taste and strong aroma. Excess moisture from cheese is expelled with the help of pressure, heating and even salt, causing a specific hard crust on the surface of some varieties. The most famous sorts of hard cheeses are Parmesan, Emmental, Bergkeze, Cheddar, Chester. Among Russian cheeses, Altai, mountain, Kostroma, and others belong to this category.
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